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Cosmetics Application

Dextran and Dextran derivatives have some beneficial applications to the cosmetics as a moisturizer and a thickener, especially Cationic Dextran (CDC) makes complex salts with anionic or amphoteric surfactants, which moderately adsorb to hair and skin to form films having moisturizing effects. CDC is a useful conditioning agents for hair care and skin care products. Dextran sulfate has the following properties which makes it more favorable for its usage in cosmetics.

  • Anti-ageing
  • Anti-wrinkle effects
  • Smooth fresh; non-sticky feeling
  • Good moisture retention
  • Increased lipase activity giving weight reducing

effects and supple skin.

  • Anti – inflammatory and anti- allergic
  • Treating rough, chapped skin

Anti- inflammatory effects of Dextran sulfates have been demonstrated in various studies (Patrushev and Shekhtman 1973; Giri et al. 1975; Giroud and Timsit 1973; Kocha et al. 1969: Von Przerwa and Arnold 1975). Dextran sulfate has been found to reduce lymphoblast extravasation in skin sites inflamed (Bellavia et al., 1987). The osmotic retention of water by Dextran sulfate present in tissue will contribute to the well being and mechanical properties of the tissue concerned.

Dextran as CARRIER for targeted-delivery

Dextran is an important biomaterial with high application value. As a natural and renewable biological macromolecule, dextran not only has excellent biodegradability, but also a good biocompatibility. Dextran is a functional polymer, for the construction of targeted drug delivery systems. The application of dextran as prodrug and nanoparticle/nanogel/microsphere/micelle carrier for targeting drug delivery system is the object of several scientific studies. The glucan gel has a large drug loading amount, stable performance and convenient absorption.

Encapsulations in food or pharmaceutical system

Encapsulation is widely used in food industry to improve or enhance nutrition or flavor. In pharmaceutical industry encapsulation of drug ingredients allows the controlled release of the active components. In encapsulation, the active material is buried to various depths inside of the wall material. Encapsulation methods of choice are generally spray drying, melt extrusion, melt injection, complex coacervation, microemulsion and liposomal carrier systems. In a number of these methods the generation of a glassy state carrier needs to be considered. Crystallization of carbohydrate syrups has been widely used in the encapsulation of flavor oils (Beristain et al., 1996; Quellet et al., 2001; Madene et al., 2006). In the pharmaceutical industry, controlled release systems based on crystalline and semicrystalline polymer phases have been developed (Mallapragada and Peppas, 1997; DesNoyer and McHugh, 2001; Laarhoven et al., 2002). Most recent studies have shown that dextran is a random coil polymer in aqueous solvent system. α=0.60 was obtained for the hypothetical linear dextran with (Gekko, 1981).

Natural polymer and the hydrogels prepared from Dextran

Dextran is a biocompatible and nontoxic polysaccharide which is widely used in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Even at concentrations above 20 wt%, dextran forms low-viscosity solutions in water. Chemical modifications can introduce aldehydes, (meth)acrylate, thiol, phenol, maleimide, and vinyl sulfone groups in dextran. Dextran suffers disadvantages of high cost and nonavailability. Applications of dextran include sustained protein and drug delivery, in tissue-engineered scaffolds, as an antithrombolytic agent, and as a bioadhesive. Dextran-based injectable hydrogels are also developed as a site-specific, trackable, chemotherapeutic devices.

Dextrans have nonfouling properties (i.e., protein rejection, high enzyme degradability) and are also biocompatible, making them ideal for use as ECM hydrogels in tissue engineering applications (Yahia et al., 2015). Dextran-based hydrogels can be fabricated by both physical and chemical crosslinking. Synthesis of glycidyl methacrylate (or acrylate) dextran derivative hydrogels has been reported using free radical polymerization (van Dijk-Wolthuis et al., 1995; Chiu et al., 2001). van Dijk-Wolthuis et al. (1995) reported the preparation of glycidyl methacrylate derivatized dextran with ammonium peroxydisulfate and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine as initiators followed by radical polymerization. Also, dextran hydrogels prepared by crosslinking with 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate have been extensively reported (Hennink and Van Nostrum, 2012).

Physically crosslinked dextran hydrogels are made by electrostatic interactions. Dextran hydrogel microspheres have been developed that have both positive and negative charges, generated using dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and MAA, respectively (Schillemans et al., 2011). The viscosity of the physically crosslinked dextran hydrogels can be reduced by applying sufficient shear, thus making them into injectable solutions. Upon removal of shear after injection, the hydrogel is formed again (Hennink and Van Nostrum, 2012). PEGylation of dextran (Moriyama et al., 1999) and photo-polymerization are other methods to fabricate dextran hydrogel. Kim et al. (1999) developed dextran hydrogel by first employing bromoacetylation of dextran followed by reacting it with sodium acrylate. The acrylated dextran is then photo-crosslinked using a long-wave UV lamp.

Co-polymerization of dextran with other polymers has also been studied extensively and is found to enhance the properties of the hydrogel. Liu et al. (2008) developed a co-polymer of methacrylate-aldehyde-bifunctionalized dextran (Dex-MA-AD) and gelatin. Methacrylate groups on Dex-MA-AD and the aldehyde groups were crosslinked by UV radiation, which facilitated the insertion of gelatin into matrix, which enhanced the enzymatic degradation. This co-polymerization also increased the cell adhesion properties of the hydrogels—in particular, it was found to support the adhesion of vascular endothelial cells.